Gabatarwa:

Idanu gaɓɓan jiki ne na musamman dake buƙatar kulawa, kula da lafiyar idanu yadda ya kamata na haɓaka lafiyar idanu da kuma haifar da gagarumin bambanci a cikin lafiyar ku da jin daɗin rayuwa gaba ɗaya.  Tsayawa kan lafiyar ido da lura da duk wani canje-canje ta hanyar ingantaccen gwajin ido yana rage yiwuwar asarar gani a lokacin da mutum yake tsufa.

 A cewar Cibiyar Kula da Cututtuka (CDC), sama da Amurkawa miliyan 21 suna da matsalolin lafiyar idanu.  Yawancin matsalolin ido suna nuna wasu alamomin gargaɗi kamin suyi wa idanu illa ko kuma su hana mutum gani baki ɗaya.

 Yana da matuƙar mahimmanci mutum yasan waɗannan alamomi da kuma abinda suke nufi domin ɗaukar matakin da ya dace a cikin lokaci.

1. Jan ido

 Ja jayen ido na faruwa ne dalilin cututtukan ido daban-daban, ciki har da raunin da zai iya haifar da haushi, kumburi, da asarar gani. Jan ido yana faruwa ne a lokacin da ƙananan magudanan jini na idanu suka yi kumburi tare da cika da jini, wannan shi kesa farin idanu ya zama ruwan hoda ko ja.

 Jajayen idanu yana nuna alamar cewa idanunku sun shiga wani hali. Hakanan yana iya zama alamar babbar matsala ko kamuwa da cuta.  Idan idanunku sunyi ja na tsawon lokaci, yana da kyau a hanzarta ziyartan likitan ido don dubawa.

 Matsalolin ido gama gari masu kawo jajayen idanu sun haɗa da:

  • Blepharitis
  • Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)
  • Eye Allergies
  • Uveitis

2. Ciwon ido

Ciwon ido na iya faruwa a sama-sama ko kuma chan cikin ido, ciwon ido mai tsanani wanda ya zo tare da matsalar rashin gani alama ce ta babbar matsala. Saboda haka yana da kyau a hanzarta ganin likitan idanu daga zarar an fara fuskantar irin haka. Cututtukan da ke kawo ciwon ido sun haɗa da:
  • Allergies
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Foreign body in the eye
  • Blepharitis
  • Keratitis
  • Iritis
  • Glaucoma
  • Optic neuritis

3. Ƙaiƙayin ido

Mafi yawancin abin da ke haifar da ƙaiƙayin ido shi ne Allergy. Allergy wani abu ne da ke faruwa sakamakon mai da martanin garkuwar jiki zuwa ga wasu baƙin abubuwa da bata lamunta ba.

4. Rashin gani dakyau a cikin dare

 Idan mutum yana fuskantar matsalar gani a lokacin da gari ya fara yin duhu ko kuma a cikin dare, toh wannan shi ake kira da night blindness a turance. Masu fama da wannan matsalar sukan iya ganin komai da rana, amma da dare sai su kama gani garaye-garaye.

 Rashin gani dakyau a lokacin dare na iya zama alamar:

  • Vitamin A deficiency (ƙarancin sinadarin bitamin A)
  • Cataract
  • Nystagmus
  • Retinitis pigmentosa

5. Ciwon kai

Wasu cututtukan idanu suna haifar da ciwon kai, idan har mutum ya fara samun ciwon kai wanda baya jin magani toh yayi gaggawar tuntubar likita, saboda mafi yawanci ciwon kai da matsalar idanu ke haifarwa baya jin magani, ko ansha anji sauƙi ciwon kan zai dawo har sai an magance matsalar idanun. Cututtukan ido masu kawo ciwon kai sun haɗa da: 

  • Angle-Closure Glaucoma
  •  Refractive Error
  •  Migraine
  •  Photokeratitis

6. Rashin son haske

Rashin son haske wanda ake kira photophobia, yana nufin mutum yaji babu daɗi a idanunsa a duk lokacin da yake cikin guri mai haske. Idan abu yayi tsanani mutum yakan ji idanunsa sun fara ciwo daga zarar ya shiga cikin haske. Wannan wata babbar alama ce ta wasu cututtuka na idanu har da wasu da ba na idanu ba. Cututtukan idanu da kan iya kawo rashin son haske sun haɗa da:
  • Cataract
  • Corneal abrasion
  • Allergies
  • Keratoconus
  • Strabismus
  • Migraine

7. Ganin fararen taurari cikin ido (Floaters)

Wata rana mutum yakan hangi wasu ɗigagga kamar taurari suna shawagi a cikin idon sa. Ana iya ganin waɗannan ba tare da cutar komi ba ko kuma sakamakon shan zazzafan mari ko duka a fuska, wasu na kiran waɗannan taurarin lahira. Haka kuma, akwai cututtuka masu sanya ganin waɗannan taurari fiye da ƙima kuma ba tare da wani dalili ba, kamar irinsu:

  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Eye lymphoma
  • Torn retina
  • Detached retina
  • Vitreous detachment
  • Uveitis

8. Ganin walƙiya cikin ido (Flashes)

Yawan ganin walƙiya ko haske cikin ido shima alama ce ta wasu cututtukan idanu. Kamar yadda mukayi bayanin ganin fararen taurari itama walƙiya ana iya ganinta a lokacin da mutum yasha duka a fuska ko ya karɓi zazzafan mari, ko yayi mummunan buguwa a kai, haka kuma tsofaffi sukan iya kama ganin walƙiya haka kawai. Cututtuka masu sanya ganin walƙiya ba tare da wani dalili ba sun haɗa da:
  • Detached retina
  • Torn retina
  • Migraine

9. Bushewar ido

Mafi yawanci bushewar ido yana faruwa ne sakamakon rashin samar da isasshen ruwan ido ko kuma hawaye da zasu jiƙa ido, ko kuma daɗewa mutum bai rufe idanunsa ba. Ciwon ido ko jan ido ya kan iya biyo bushewar ido. Cututtuka masu sanya bushewar ido sun ƙunshi:

  • Bell's palsy
  • Blepharitis
  • Chronic dry eye

10. Yawan zubar da hawaye ko ruwan ido ba dalili

Mafi yawancin lokuta idan ido ya shiga halin tsaka mai wuya yakan zubar da hawaye ko ruwan ido fiye da ƙima domin sanyayawa da kuma rage raɗaɗin ciwon da yake ciki. Cututtukan da ke kawo yawan hawaye sun haɗa da:
  • Foreign body in the eyes
  • Allergies
  • Bacterial keratitis
  • Blocked tear duct
  • Dry eye

11. Rashin gani dakyau

Wasu cututtukan idanu su kan fara nuna alamu ne ta hanyar ragewa mutum gani ko hangen nesa, ko kuma mutum ya fara gani bishi-bishi. Cututtukan da ke ragewa mutum ƙarfin gani sun haɗa da:
  • Macular Degeneration mai alaƙa da shekaru

  •  Astigmatism

  •  Cataracts

  •  Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

  •  Retina mai Ragewa ko Tsage

  •  Keratoconus

  •  Macular edema

  •  Refractive Errors

12. Kumburin ido

Kumburi akan ido ko kusa da ido ko akan fatar ido na iya zama sakamakon raunin ido, raunin kai, wuya, ko fuska. Haka kuma, naman da ke cikin ido ko fatar ido na iya yin kumburi sanadiyyar wasu cututtuka da ke faruwa a cikin ido.

 Kumburi na iya nuna mummunar matsalar ido, abubuwan gama gari masu kawo kumburin ido sun haɗa da:

  • Black Eye

Kammalawa

Idanu gaɓɓan jiki ne na musamman masu buƙatar kulawa, idan har mutum yaji wani sauyi dangane da lafiyar idanuwan sa, toh yana da kyau ya hanzarta ganin likitan ido cikin gaggawa.

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