Gabatarwa:


Ciwon suga shahararren ciwo ne na tsawon rayuwa da yake faruwa sakamakon rashin daidaituwa a wajen rugujewar abinci mai samar da sinadarin carbohydrates a cikin jini. Duk wani kalan abinci mai samar da sinadarin carbohydrates yana rugujewa ne a cikin jini zuwa sinadarin sukari wanda ake kira sinadarin glucose. Ciwon sugar yana haifar da hauhawar sinadarin sukari na glucose a cikin jini fiye da ƙima. Haɓaka da hauhawar wannan sinadarin glucose a cikin jini na tsawon lokaci yana haifar da babban lahani ga zuciya, jijiyoyin jini, idanu, ƙoda da kuma jakadun ƙwaƙwalwa.

A ƙiyasin hukumar lafiya ta duniya (WHO) kimanin mutane miliyan ɗari huɗu da ashirin da biyu (422 millions) na mutanen duniya suna da ciwon sugar, yawancin masu ciwon suna zaune a kasashe masu karamin karfi a duniya. Haka zalika, hukumar tace ana danganta mutuwar mutane miliyan ɗaya da rabi (1.5 million) kai tsaye ga ciwon sugar a kowace shekara. 


Yadda abinci mai samar da sinadarin carbohydrates yake narkewa a cikin jini

Idan muna son samun ƙwaƙƙwaran fahimta akan ciwon sugar da kuma yadda yake aukuwa ya zama wajibi muyi bayani dallah-dallah yadda abinci mai ɗauke da sinadarin carbohydrates yake narkewa da rugurgujewa zuwa sinadarin glucose a cikin jini da kuma yadda wannan sinadarin glucose yake shiga cikin tantanin halittu domin samar da kuzari.  Duk wani abinci mai ɗauke da sinadarin carbohydrates, misali, shinkafa, hatsi, masara, da dai sauransu, suna narkewa zuwa sinadarin sukari na glucose a cikin jini. Wannan rugurgujewa tana farawa ne tun lokacin da aka fara tauna abinci a cikin baki har zuwa lokacin da zai isa cikin tumbi da hanji. Bayan abincin ya narke zuwa sinadarin sukari na glucose wanda shi ne kaɗai zai iya samun shiga zuwa cikin ƙoramar jini a inda za'a yi jigilarsa zuwa cikin tantanin halittu domin ya samar da kuzari. Sinadarin sukari na glucose shi ne mafi soyuwar abin da tantanin halittu ke amfani dashi wajen samun ƙarfin jiki da kuzari domin aiwatar da kowane irin aiki.

Shigar sinadarin sukari na glucose cikin tantanin halittu yana buƙatar aikin wani sinadarin hormone da ake kira insulin wanda gland din pancreas take samarwa. Gland din pancreas tana da wasu tantanin halittun da ake kira Beta cells da turanci, waɗanda su keda alhakin samar da wannan sinadarin hormone na insulin. Kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, sinadarin hormone na insulin shi ne ke da alhakin ɗaukar sinadarin sukari na glucose a cikin jini domin shigarwa a cikin tantanin halittun ɗan adam. Idan babu sinadarin insulin ko kuma tantanin halittun ɗan adam sun fara samun juriya daga aikinsa, toh a lokacin sinadarin sukari na glucose yakan taru cikin jini fiye da ƙima, al'amarin da ake kira da turanci hyperglycaemia.

Me ke kawo ciwon sugar?

Ciwon sugar yana faruwa ne sakamakon rashin isasshen sinadarin hormone na insulin, ko kuma a wani sa'ilin akwai isasshen sinadarin hormone na insulin amma aikinsa baya tasiri akan tantanin halittu saboda wata juriya da suka samu akan aikin insulin. Wannan zai sa sinadarin sukari na glucose ya taru cikin jini sosai saboda glucose baya iya shiga cikin tantanin halittu kai tsaye sai da taimakon sinadarin insulin. Hauhawar sinadarin sukari na glucose a cikin jini (hyperglycaemia) shi ne musabbabin duk wata illah da ciwon sugar yake kawowa. Saboda haka zamu iya cewa abubuwan da ke kawo ciwon sugar su ne abubuwan da ke hana samar da sinadarin hormone na insulin da kuma abubuwan da ke hanawa sinadarin insulin aikinsa yadda ya kamata.

Ya kamata a gane cewa ba'a san ainihin abin da ke haifar da yawancin nau'in ciwon sugar ba.  A kowane hali, sinadarin sukari na glucose yana hauhawa a cikin jini. Abubuwan da ke kawo ciwon sugar sun haɗa da;

1. Juriya akan insulin: 

Nau'in ciwon sugar na 2 galibi yana faruwa ne daga juriyar tantanin halittun jiki daga aikin insulin.  Juriya na insulin yana faruwa ne lokacin da tantanin halittun tsoka (muscle cells), tantanin halittun kitse (Fat cells) da tantanin halittun hanta (liver cells) ba su amsar aikin insulin yadda ya kamata. Abubuwa da yawa suna ba da gudummawa ga matakan juriya na insulin, abubuwan sun haɗa da ƙiba ko taiɓa, rashin motsa jiki, abinci, rashin daidaituwa na sinadaran hormones, gadon ciwon suga da kuma wasu magunguna

2. Cututtukan garkuwar jiki: 

Akwai wasu cututtuka na garkuwar jiki da ake kira autoimmune diseases. Idan mutum na fama da irin waɗannan cututtukan, garkuwar jikinsa takan kai hari zuwa ga lafiyayyun tantanin halittunsa tare da lalata su. Nau'in ciwon sukari na ɗaya (type - 1 DM) da kuma wani nau'in ciwon sugar da ake kira LADA suna faruwa lokacin da tsarin garkuwar jiki ya kai hari ga tantanin halittun Beta cells da ke cikin pancreas masu samar da sinadarin hormone na insulin. Wannan zai yi sanadiyar ƙarancin sinadarin hormone na insulin.

3. Rashin daidaituwar wasu sinadaran hormones

Lokacin da mace ke ɗauke da ciki, placenta tana fitar da hormones waɗanda ke sanya tantanin halittu su samu juriya akan aikin insulin. Wannan shi yasa mace mai ciki tana iya samun ciwon sugar na wucin gadi a lokacin da take ɗauke da ciki. Irin wannan ciwon sugar mafi yawanci yakan warke bayan mace ta haihu, wayau a lokacin da sinadaran hormones nata sum samu daidaituwar. Wasu matan kuma ciwon sugan yakan zarce har abada. Haka zalika sauran cututtukan da ke da alaƙa da rashin daidaituwar sinadaran hormones kamar acromegaly da Cushing syndrome na iya haifar da nau'in ciwon sugar na biyu (2).

4. Lalacewar gland din pancreas: 

Lalacewar gland din pancreas - daga yanayin, tiyata ko rauni ko kuma wasu cututtuka - na iya yin tasiri ga ikonsa na samar da insulin, hakan yana iya haifar da ciwon sugar.

5. Canje-canjen kwayoyin halitta (Genetic mutations)

Wasu canje-canjen ƙwayoyin halitta da ke faruwa ba bisa tsari ba, na iya haifar da ciwon sugar da ake kira MODY da kuma ciwon sugar na jarirai.

 Magunguna

Yin amfani da wasu magunguna na dogon lokaci na iya haifar da nau'in ciwon sugar na 2, waɗannan magunguna sun haɗa da magungunan ciwon ƙanjamau (HIV/AIDS) da kuma magunguna da ake kira corticosteroids.

Mutanen da ke kan haɗarin samun ciwon sugar

  1. Masu gadon ciwon sugar
  2. Mutane masu ƙiba
  3. Marasa motsa jiki
  4. Mace mai ciki wadda ta samu ciwon sugar ma wucin gadi
  5. Jarirai waɗanda mamarsu keda ciwon sugar

Alamomin ciwon sugar

  • Jin ƙishirwa fiye da yadda aka saba.
  • Yawan yin fitsari akai-akai.
  • Rage nauyi ko ramewa.
  • Kasancewar sinadaran ketones a cikin fitsarin mutum.  Sinadaran ketones shine sakamakon rushewar kitse da ke faruwa lokacin da babu isasshen insulin.
  • Yawan jin kasala ko gajiya.
  • Jin haushi ko samun wasu canje-canjen yanayi.
  • Rashin hangen nesa.
  • Samun raunuka da basu saurin warkewa.
  • Samun cututtuka masu yawa, kamar cututtukan baki, fata da kuma cututtukan farji.
  • Kiyashi na kwaɗayin fitsarin mutum

Kammalawa

A cikin wannan rubutu munyi bayani game da ciwon sugar abubuwan da ke kawo shi da kuma yadda yake faruwa a jikin dan adam. Haka zalika, munyi bayani game da alamomin ciwon sugar. Sauran bayani game da ire-iren ciwon sugar da kuma yadda ake maganin ciwon a asibiti zai zo a cikin rubutun mu na gaba da yardar Allah. Ku kasance tare damu.
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