Gabatarwa:

Fitar da nono siffa ce ta 'ya'ya mata a yayin da suka fara kai mizanin balaga. Amma abin mamaki sai kaga wasu maza sun fitar da manyan nonuwa tamkar na wata ƙwaleliyar budurwa. Fitar da nono ga namiji ana kiran shi gynaecomastia. A cikin wannan rubutu zamuyi tsokaci game da abubuwan da ke kawo wa maza fitar da nono da kuma yadda ake maganinsu




Mene ne gynaecomastia?

Gynaecomastia yana nufin ƙarin girma ko kuma kumburin nonon namiji tare da bunƙasar tantanin halittun gland ɗin da ke samar da madara a cikin nonon wanda ke faruwa sanadiyyar yawaitar sinadarin estrogen a cikin jinin namiji. A lura cewa, ƙiba ko taiɓa watarana takan sa nonon namiji ƙara girma, abinda ake kira da turanci 'lipomastia' ko kuma 'pseudogynaecomastia'. Toh wannan ba gynaecomastia ba ne saboda girman yana faruwa ne sakamakon taruwar kitse kawai ba tare da bunƙasar tantanin halittun gland ɗin madara da ke cikin nono ba, kuma babu hauhawar sinadarin estrogen a cikin jini.
Gynaecomastia ta kan iya shafar nono ɗaya ko kuma duka nonuwan namiji. Wannan ya danganta da abubuwa ko cutar da ta kawo gynaecomastia.

Alamomin fitowar nono ga namiji (Gynaecomastia)

  1. Kumburin nono
  2. Ciwo idan an taɓa nonon
  3. Matsanancin jin taɓi sosai akan nonon
  4. Kan nono zai iya ƙara yin baƙi

Kashe kashen fitowar nono ga namiji (Types of gynaecomastia)

Masana sun kasa fitowar nono ga namiji zuwa kashi uku (3) duba da la'akari da abubuwan da suka kawo fitowar nonon.
  1. Physiologic gynaecomastia
  2. Non physiologic gynaecomastia
  3. Idiopathic gynaecomastia

Physiologic gynaecomastia

Wannan itace fitowar nono a jikin namiji wanda bayada alaƙa da wata cuta ko shan wani magani. Kawai nonon yana fitowa ne sakamakon sauyin yanayin sinadaran hormones a cikin jinin namiji. A yayin da masana suka yi la'akari da lokacin da nonon ya fito a rayuwar namiji, sun kasa physiologic gynaecomastia zuwa kashi uku (3) kamar haka:

1. Gynaecomastia in infants: Wannan shi ne fitowar nono ga jarirai maza ko kuma haihuwar jariri namiji da nono. Wannan ba abin mamaki bane saboda yana yawan faruwa a cikin al'umma. Nono yana fitowa wasu jarirai saboda aikin estrogen na mahaifiyarsu a lokacin da suke cikin ciki. Estrogens na mahaifiya sukan sami shiga cikin jinin jariri ne ta hanyar placenta. Wannan kalar gynaecomastia baya buƙatar magani saboda cikin ƙanƙanin lokaci bayan haihuwar yaro nonuwan zasu ɓace da kansu daga zarar estrogen na mahaifiyarsu ya daina aiki.


2. Gynaecomastia in puberty: Wannan shi ne fitowar nono a lokacin da yaro yake cikin farkon balaga. Wannan ma abu ne mai yawan faruwa, idan yaro namiji yana cikin farkon balaga wani sa'ilin akan samu hauhawa da kuma rashin daidaituwa tsakanin sinadaran hormones na androgens da kuma estrogens. Wannan yakan iya sa nonon yaro ɗaya ya girma, watarana dukkan nonuwan sa guda biyu zasu girma. Ita ma wannan kalar gynaecomastia bata buƙatar magani saboda daga zarar yaro ya gama balaga nonon zai ɓace dakansa sakamakon daidaituwar sinadaran. Irin wannan nonon mafi yawanci yakan ɗauki tsawon watanni shida (6) zuwa watanni goma sha takwas (18) kamin ya ɓace.

3. Gynaecomastia in adult: Wannan shi ne fitowar nono ga namiji baligi wanda ya daɗe da gama balaga. Kalar wannan physiologic gynaecomastia tana faruwa ne mafi yawanci ga tsofaffin maza masu ƙiba da taiɓa sosai. Tana faruwa ne sanadiyyar raguwar sinadaran hormones na androgens da ke faruwa yayin tsufa da kuma hauhawar estrogens.

Non physiologic gynaecomastia

Kalar wannan gynaecomastia itace wasu cututtuka ke kawowa, ko kuma shan wasu magunguna ke kawowa, kuma itace ke buƙatar magani domin nonon da ya fito ba zai ɓace ba har sai anyi maganin abinda yayi sanadin fitowarsa, ko an daina shan maganin da yayi sanadin fitowarsa.

Idiopathic gynaecomastia

Ita wannan gynaecomastia tana faruwa ne ba tare da sanin miye musabbabin abin da ya kawo ta ba. Bata da alaƙa da cuta ko shan wani magani ko sauyin yanayi sinadaran hormones.

Abubuwan da ke sa namiji baligi ya fitar da nono (Causes of gynaecomastia in adult)

Fitar da manyan nonuwa ga namiji baligi yana faruwa ne sakamakon hauhawar sinadarin hormone na estrogens a cikin jinin namiji kamar yadda muka ambata a baya. Sinadarin estrogen yana cikin female sex hormones ma'ana, sinadaran hormones masu kula da duk harkokin jima'in mata. Waɗannan sinadaran su ke da alhakin sauya jikin mace daga ƙaramar yarinya zuwa budurwa ta hanyar sanya ta fitar da nono, manyan ɗuwawu da kunkumi, fara yin jinin al'ada da dai sauransu. Munyi bayani sosai akan hidimar da waɗannan sinadaran keyi da kuma yadda ake samar da su a cikin wannan rubutu "Bayani game da yadda maza da mata ke balaga".
Duk da cewa estrogen sinadari ne na mata amma ana samun sinadarin estrogen ɗan kaɗan a cikin jinin lafiyayyen namiji. Wannan sinadarin yana samuwa ne a cikin jinin lafiyayyen namiji ta hanyar wasu protein enzymes (aromatase) da suke mayar da sinadaran hormones na androgens (male sex hormones) zuwa estrogens. Abubuwan da ke sanya nono ya fito a jikin namiji duka suna sanya wannan sinadarin estrogen yawaita ne a cikin jinin namiji ko kuma su sanya ƙirƙirar wannan sinadarin fiye da ƙima, ko kuma su hana samar da sinadaran hormones na androgens ta yadda sinadarin estrogen shi ne sex hormone ɗin da zai fi yawa a cikin jini. Abubuwan da ke kawo wannan matsalar gynaecomastia sun ƙunshi waɗannan:

1. Cututtuka

  1. Hypogonadism - Ƙarancin sinadaran hormones na androgens.
  2. Chronic liver disease - Ciwon anta
  3. Chronic kidney disease - Ciwon ƙoda
  4. Hyperprolactinaemia - Yawaitar sinadarin hormone na prolactin
  5. Hypothyroidismm - Ƙarancin sinadaran hormones na thyroid gland
  6. Obesity - Ciwon ƙiba (taiɓa)
  7. Tumours - Ciwon sanƙara; wasu cututtuka na sanƙara sukan samar da sinadarin estrogens fiye da ƙima, kamar irin su sanƙarar ƴaƴan marina, sanƙarar adrenal gland, sanƙarar pituitary gland da dai sauransu.
  8. Sanƙarar nono

2. Magunguna

Akwai magunguna da dama waɗanda yawan amfanin da su ke haifar da fitowar nono ga namiji. Haka kuma akwai magunguna masu ɗauke da sinadarin estrogens dayawa a cikinsu. Yawan shan irin waɗannan magunguna yana haifar da fitowar nono ga namiji. Wannan shi yasa akwai allurorin estrogens da kuma magunguna da wasu 'yan daudu da kuma 'yan luwaɗi ke amfani dasu domin sauya halittarsu ta maza zuwa halittar mata, ta hanyar fitowar nono, manyan ɗuwawu da kuma ƙaramar murya.
Magungunan da ke kawo gynaecomastia sun haɗa da:
  1. Anti-androgens: Waɗannan magunguna ne masu hanawa sinadaran hormones na androgens yin aikinsu. Misalansu ya haɗa da; Flutamide, Finasteride, Dutasteride da Spironolactone.
  2. Protease inhibitors: Wasu magunguna ne da ake amfani dasu wajen maganin cutar ƙanjamau (HIV/AIDS). Misalin su ya haɗa da; Efavirenz, saquinavir, lopinavir, stavudine, indinavir.
  3. Exogenous estrogens: Magunguna ne da ke ɗauke da sinadarin estrogens dayawa. Misali; levonorgestrel, divigel, primarin da sauransu
  4. Tricyclic antidepressants: Wani nau'in magunguna ne da ake amfani dasu wajen maganin yanayin ƙunci da ɓacin rai. Misali; Amitriptyline
  5. H2 blockers: Wani nau'in magunguna ne da ake amfani dasu waje maganin gymbon ciki. Misali cimetidine.
  6. Prednisolone: Magani ne da ake amfani dashi wajen rage inflammation.
  7. Chemoth.erapeutics: Magungunan ciwon sanƙara
  8. Digoxin: Wani maganin ciwon zuciya ne
  9. Metoclopramide: Magani ne da ake amfani dashi wajen tashin zuciya.
  10. Haloperidol: Magani ne na ciwon hauka

3. Barasa da miyagun ƙwayoyi

  1. Alcohol - Barasa
  2. Marijuana - Wiwi
  3. Cocaine - Hodar iblis
  4. Anabolic steroids: Magunguna masu gina tsokokin jiki
  5. Amphetamines
  6. Heroin
  7. Methadone

Yadda ake maganin fitowar nono ga namiji

Abu na farko wanda likita zai yi shi ne zai yi ƙoƙari ya gane wane irin gynaecomastia marar lafiya yake da shi. Zai gane haka ta hanyar ɗaukar tarihin rashin lafiyar sannan ya duba marar lafiyar a kan gado watarana ma har ya aika yin wasu 'yan gwaje-gwaje.
Mafi yawancin physiologic gynaecomastia kamar yadda mukayi bayani a baya basa buƙatar magani saboda daga baya nonuwan da suka fito zasu ɓace da kansu.
Amma non-physiologic gynaecomastia kamar wadda ta faru sanadiyyar ciwon anta ko ciwon ƙoda, ko hypogonadism maganinta yana farawa ne da magance cutar da ta kawo gynaecomastia ɗin. Idan ciwon anta ne za'a yi maganin ciwon, haka ma idan na ƙoda ne ko ciwon hypogonadism toh za'a fara maganin cututtukan kamin ayi maganin fitowar nonon.
Haka kuma, gynaecomastia da ta faru saboda yawan amfani da wasu magunguna ko miyagun ƙwayoyi, toh ana fara maganin ta ne ta hanyar daina amfani da waɗannan magunguna ko ƙwayoyi. Idan har dole ne mutum yasha maganin saboda wata matsalar ta daban, kamar maganin HIV/AIDS mai kawo gynaecomastia, toh ana rage yawan maganin da marar lafiyar yake sha ko kuma a chanja maganin baki ɗaya.

Magungunan da ake sha domin magance fitowar nono ga namiji

Yin abubuwan da suka dace kamar maganin cutar da ta kawo fitowar nono, daina shan magungunan da ke kawo fitowar nono da kuma daina shan miyagun ƙwayoyi yakan magance nonon da ya riga ya fitowa namiji sanadiyyar waɗannan abubuwan. Amma idan hakan bai wadatar ba, ana iya yin amfani da waɗannan magunguna
  1. Anti-estrogens: Misali Tamoxifen
  2. Aromatase inhibitors: Misali  Arnastrozole

Tiyata

Ana yin tiyata domin cire nonon da ya fitowa namiji idan har an gwada duk magungunan da ya kamata har na tsawon wani lokaci amma ba'a dace ba.

Kammalawa

A cikin wannan rubutun mun ga cewa fitowar nono ga namiji yana faruwa ne sakamakon hauhawar sinadaran estrogens ko kuma rashin daidaituwar sinadaran hormones na androgens da estrogens a cikin jinin namiji. Haka zalika munga cewa wannan cutar tana faruwa ne sanadiyyar wasu cututtuka ko kuma shan wasu magunguna ko kuma miyagun ƙwayoyi.
Print this post