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Hanyoyin bada tazarar haihuwa na zamani da kuma yadda ake hana daukar ciki (Methods of contraception)

Gabatarwa:

Masana sun fassara ma'anar hanyoyin bada tazarar iyali a matsayin hanyoyin da ma'aurata zasu bi domin hana samuwar juna biyu ba tare da sun daina saduwa da juna ba. Waɗannan hanyoyi su kan taimakawa ma'aurata domin tsara tazarar da ke tsakanin iyalansu da kuma ƙayyade wa turawa adadin iyalan da suke buƙata.

A cikin wannan rubutu zamu yi bayani dallah dallah a kan wadannan hanyoyin, amfanin su da kuma illolin su



Hanyoyin bada tazarar iyali

Likitoci masana ilimin al'aurar mata sun kasa hanyoyin bada tazarar iyali zuwa gida biyu kamar haka;
  1. Reversible contraception method - Hanyoyin bada tazarar iyali da za'a iya warwarewa daga baya.
  2. Permanent contraception method - Hanyoyin bada tazarar iyali na dim dim dim.

Reversible contraception methods

Waɗannan hanyoyin bada tazarar iyali kamar yadda sunansu ya nuna mana, su ne hanyoyin da ake amfani dasu na wucin gadi, ma'ana, ana yin amfani dasu ne domin hana samun juna biyu na wani ƙayyadadden lokaci. Sannan daga baya idan an buƙaci juna biyu sai a daina amfani dasu domin samun juna biyun. Waɗannan hanyoyi sune ake amfani dasu domin tsara tazarar da ke tsakanin iyalai. Bayanin hanyoyin zai zo da sannu kamar haka;

1. Barrier methods (Hanyoyin sanya shamaki)

Waɗannan hanyoyi ne da ake amfani dasu domin hana samun juna biyu yayin da ake yin jima'i. Waɗannan hanyoyin sun ƙunshi sanya wani shamaki a al'aurar mace ko namiji wanda zai hana shigar ruwan maniyyi kai tsaye a cikin mahaifa. Ana amfani da wasu robobi na musamman domin sanya shamaki, robobin suna da inganci wajen hana samun ciki sai dai watarana sukan iya fashewa, haka kuma, suna rage jindaɗin jima'i. Robobin da ake amfani dasu sun haɗa da:
  • Male condom: Robar kariya ta condom wadda ake sanyawa a azzakarin namiji. Wannan robar tanada amfani sosai domin tana kare aukuwar juna biyu yayin da ake yin jima'i, haka kuma tana kare yaɗuwar cututtuka masu iya yaɗuwa ta hanyar jima'i a tsakanin ma'aurata. Domin ƙarin inganci akwai wasu robobin condom masu ɗauke da sinadaran dake kashe halittun maniyyi bayan namiji yayi inzali.
  • Female condom: Robar kariya ta condom wadda ake sanyawa a farjin mace (condom ɗin mata). Ita ma wannan robar kamar condom din maza take sai dai tafi shi yelwa. Ana sanyata a farjin mace kamin a fara yin jima'i.

  • Contraceptive sponge: Wannan wata roba ce ƙarama da ake sanyawa a cikin farjin mace domin rufe bakin mahaifa. Wannan robar tana rufe ƙofar mahaifa baki ɗaya kuma tana ɗauke da wasu sinadarai masu kashe halittun da ke cikin ruwan maniyyi bayan sun zuba a cikin farji.

  • Cervical diaphragm: Wannan wata roba ce mai kamar hula wadda ake sanyawa a cikin farji domin rufe bakin mahaifar. Itama tana amfani kamar contraceptive sponge. Ana sanya wannan robar kamin fara saduwa, sannan ba za'a cire ba sai anyi aƙalla sa'a shida (6 hours) da ƙare saduwa.

  • Spermicide: Waɗannan sinadaran magunguna ne na shafawa masu kashe halittun haihuwa da ke cikin ruwan maniyyi idan akayi inzali.

2. Hormonal methods (Hanyoyin amfani da sinadaran hormones)

Waɗannan hanyoyi ne da suke amfani da sinadaran hormones domin hana aukuwar juna biyu duk da cewa mace na yin jima'i. Sinadaran hormones ɗin mata (musamman estrogens da progesterones) suna da matuƙar amfani wajen samun juna biyu domin su keda alhakin kula da fitowar ƙwayoyin halittun haihuwa da mace ke bada gudunmawa wajen samun juna biyu (ovulation). Domin samun cikakken bayani game da waɗannan sinadaran hormones da kuma yadda mace ke ɗaukar juna biyu ku karanta wannan rubutu "Bayani game da kimiyyar jima'in ɗan adam".
Hanyoyin bada tazarar iyali na sinadaran hormones suna kawo rashin daidaituwa a tsakanin waɗannan sinadaran hormones na mata masu kula da yin ƙwai, sakamakon haka sai su hana mace samar da ƙwai, wanda shi ne ake buƙatar ya haɗu da maniyyin namiji domin samuwar ciki. Waɗannan hanyoyin bada tazarar iyali ta amfani da sinadaran hormones suna da matuƙar inganci sosai, amma duk da haka suna da wasu 'yan matsaloli da watarana suke iya kawowa a lokacin da ake amfani da su. Misali:
  1. Rikicewar jinin al'ada
  2. Yin ƙiba (taiɓa)
  3. Ganin jini kwatsam ba bisa ƙa'ida ba
  4. Jimawa kamin a samun haihuwa bayan an daina amfani da su.
A lura, ba kowa ke samun waɗannan matsaloli ba don yayi amfani dasu. Amma mun kawosu nep saboda idan mutum ya samu kar yayi mamaki. Waɗannan hanyoyi masu amfani da sinadaran hormones suma sun rabu kashi-kashi kamar haka:

A. Oral contraceptives pills (Magungunan bada tazarar iyali na ƙwayoyi)

Waɗannan magunguna ne masu ɗauke da sinadaran estrogens da progesterones ku kuma masu ɗauke da sinadarin progesterone kawai. Ana shan su kullum domin hana ɗaukar ciki. Sun kasu gida biyu kamar haka:
  • Combined oral contraceptives pills (COCP): Magungunan bada tazarar iyali masu ɗauke da sinadaran estrogens da progesterones. Misali: Natazia, Yuzpe regiment, Azurette, Cyclessa, Desogen, Gianvi da dai sauransu.

  • Progestins only pills (POP): Magungunan bada tazarar iyali masu ɗauke da sinadarin progesterones kawai. Misali: Overette, Micronor, levonelle-2, Denlitane da dai sauransu.


A lura cewa, waɗannan magunguna suna da bambanci sosai a wajen sha. Combined oral contraceptives pills da ke ɗauke da sinadaran estrogens da progesterones ana fara shansu ne ranar da aka ƙare al'ada, sai asha kullum har zuwa kwana ashirin da ɗaya sannan a huta na kwanaki bakwai sannan a cigaba da sha. Haka za'a yi tayi ko wane wata, kamar yadda yake a jikin hotonsu dake sama. A cikin kwanaki bakwai da mace bata sha ba zata iya ganin jini kamar na al'adam. COCP su ne zaka gani da kala daban daban.
Amma su kuma progesterone only pills kullum sai an sha, ba maganar hutu.
A lura, wajen shan ƙwayoyin maganin bada tazarar iyali yanada kyau mace ta fake lokacin da ta fara shan maganin ba tare da chanji ba. Misali idan mace ta fara shan magani da ƙarfe goma na safe, toh ta tabbata kullum zata sha magani dai-dai ƙarfe goma na safe ba tare da chanji ba.

B. Injectable contraceptives (Magungunan bada tazarar iyali na allura)

Waɗannan magungunan allura ne dake ɗauke da sinadarin progesterone kawai. Ana yin allurar bayan wani ƙayyadadden lokaci. Misali:
  1. Allurar Depo provera ana yinta duk bayan watanni uku (3 monthly).
  2. Allurar Noristerat ana yinta duk bayan watanni biyu (2 monthly).

C. Contraceptive implants (Robobin bada tazarar iyali na sanyawa a hannu)

Waɗannan wasu robobi ne da ke ɗauke da sinadarin progesterone. Ana sanya robobin ne a ƙarƙashin fatar damtse (arm) domin su kama sakin sinadarin progesterone akai-akai a cikin jini. Za'a bar robobin a jikin mace sai ranar da ta buƙaci haihuwa ko kuma ranar da wa'adin aikin robar ya ƙare. Misalansu ya ƙunshi:
  1. Robar implanon wadda tana da wa'adin aiki na tsawon shekaru uku (3).
  2. Robar Nexplanin wadda tana da wa'adin aiki na tsawon shekaru uku (3).
  3. Robar Jadelle wadda tana da wa'adin aiki har na tsawon shekaru biyar (5).
  4. Robar Norplant wadda tana da wa'adin aiki na tsawon shekaru biyar (5).

D. Vaginal ring ( Zoben sanyawa a farji)

Wannan wani zobe ne na roba da yake ɗauke da sinadaran hormones na estrogens da progesterones. Ana sanya shi ne  cikin ƙarshen farji a bar shi nan domin ya cigaba da samar da waɗannan sinadaran a cikin jini.


E. Contraceptive patch

Wannan wata roba ce mai ɗauri mai kamar takarda wadda ake liƙawa a fatar damtse, ko fatar ciki. Robar itama tana sakin sinadaran hormones ne a cikin jini.


3. Intrauterine contraceptives device - IUCD (Na'urar bada tazarar iyali da ake sanyawa a mahaifa)

Akwai wasu na'urorin da ake sanyawa a cikin mahaifa a barsu a ciki idan anason hana samun ciki na wuccin gadi kuma na lokaci mai tsawo. Na'urorin suna da wa'adin aiki da yakai tsawon shekaru uku (3) har zuwa shekaru goma (10). A cikin Waɗannan na'urorin akwai masu samar da sinadaran hormones akwai kuma waɗanda basu samar da sinadaran komai. Yadda waɗannan na'urorin ke hana samuwar juna biyu har yanzu abin mahawara ne a tsakanin masana. Misalan waɗannan na'urorin ya ƙunshi:
  1. Cupper T380
  2. Mirena

4. Natural methods of contraception (Hanyoyin bada tazarar iyali na ɗabi'a)

Akwai hanyoyin hana samun ciki na halitta ko kuma na ɗabi'a waɗanda basa buƙatar yin amfani da wani shamaki, magani ko kuma na'ura. Sai dai waɗannan hanyoyin basu da inganci ko kaɗan. Akwai yiwuwar samun ciki sosai idan aka dogara garesu su kaɗai. Waɗannan hanyoyin su ne:

A. Traditional methods (Hanyar gargajiya)

Wannan hanya ita ce mace zata ƙiyasta lokacin da take tsammanin samar da ƙwai ko kuma idan taji alamomin yin samar da ƙwan (ovulation) sai ta daina yin jima'i a cikin kwanakin da take tsammanin yin ovulation. Sai bayan kwanaki uku zuwa huɗu daidai ƙwan da ta samar ya mutu sai ta dawo yin jima'i. Idan har mace batasan yadda zata gane lokacin da take yin ƙwai (ovulation) ba, toh ta karanta wannan rubutu "Bayani game da yadda mace zata gane lokacin da take ovulation da kuma hanyoyin da ma'aurata zasu bi su samu juna biyu a cikin sauƙi".

B. Lactational amenorrhea (Ɗaukewar jinin al'ada saboda shayarwa)

A lokacin da mace ta haihu daga zarar jinin biƙi ya ɗauke mata, toh takan yi kamar watanni shida kamin ta fara ganin jinin al'adarta matsawar ita ke shayar da abinda ta haifa. Toh a cikin wannan lokaci kamin mace ta dawo yin haila yana da wahala ta iya ɗaukar ciki duk yadda akayi jima'i da ita. Amma idan ta fara ganin jinin al'adarta toh dole ayi amfani da wata hanya, domin a ko wane lokaci zata iya ɗaukar ciki.

C. Coitus interruptus (Tsayar da yin jima'i yayin da akaji uzurin inzali)

Wannan tsohuwar hanya ce da mutanen dori suke amfani da ita. Yadda ake yi shi ne, idan ma'aurata na tsakiyar yin jima'i daga zarar mijin yaji uzurin inzali sai ya fitar da azzakarinsa ya zubar da ruwan maniyyinsa a waje. Wannan hanya ba abar dogaro bace, saboda ana iya samun ciki idan aka dogara gareta kaɗai.

Permanent contraception method

Waɗannan wasu hanyoyi ne da ake bi domin hana samun juna biyu har abada. Idan ma'aurata sun kammala iyalansu ko kuma basu da buƙatar haihuwa har abada ku kuma mace bata iya jure wahalar ɗaukar ciki saboda wata lalurar rashin lafiya toh waɗannan hanyoyi sune suka fi dacewa ayi amfani dasu:
  1. Bilateral tubal ligation (BTL): Wannan aikin tiyata ne da ake yi domin ɗaure Fallopian tubes din mace duka guda biyu.
  2. Bilateral salpingectomy: Aikin tiyata ne da ake yi domin cirewa mace Fallopian tubes duka guda biyu.
  3. Hysterectomy: Yin aikin tiyata domin cire mahaifa.
  4. Vasectomy: Wannan shi ne kaɗai hanyar bada tazarar iyali da ake iya yiwa namiji. Vasectomy ya ƙunshi yin aikin tiyata domin ɗaure wani bututu da ake kira Vas deference. Wannan bututun shi ke ɗauko halittun da ke cikin ruwan maniyyi daga ƴaƴan marina zuwa cikin azzakari. Idan anyiwa namiji wannan aiki shikenan baya ƙara haihuwa.

Emergency contraception (Hana samuwar ciki na gaggawa) - Yadda ake hana mace ɗaukar ciki idan ta sadu da namiji bisa kuskure.

Wannan wata hanya ce da ake bi domin hana samuwar ciki na gaggawa ga maccen da tayi jima'i a cikin kuskure ko ba da niyyar samun ciki ba. Misali
  1. Maccen da aka yiwa fyaɗe.
  2. Maccen ke shan magungunan ƙwayoyi na bada tazarar iyali amma ta manta bata sha ba kuma tayi jima'i.
  3. Maccen da take amfani da condom ko mijinta ke amfani da condom amma condom ya fashe yayin da suke yin jima'i
  4.  da dai sauransu.
Hana ciki na gaggawa (emergency contraception) ana yin shi ne ta hanya biyu. Na farko shi ne shan ƙwayoyin magani, na biyu shi ne sanya na'urar bada tazarar iyali a cikin mahaifa. Yadda ake yin emergency contraception ta hanyar shan ƙwayoyin magani shi ne:
  • Ana shan combined oral contraceptives pills ƙwayoyi guda biyu. Misali: Ƙwayoyin Yuzpe regiment guda biyu. Sannan a maimaita shan ƙwayoyin biyu bayan sa'a goma sha biyu (12 hours)
  • Ko kuma ƙwayoyin levonelle-2 guda biyu sannan a sake maimaitawa bayan sa'a goma sha biyu.
  • Ko kuma a sha ƙwayoyin ulipristal acetate.


A lura cewa, shan waɗannan ƙwayoyin baya da amfanin komai idan mace ta wuce kwanaki uku da yin jima'i bata sha ba, saboda da haka anaso mace tayi saurin shan maganin daga zarar sun gama jima'i.
Sai kuma hanya ta biyu ita ce a sanya na'urar bada tazarar iyali a cikin mahaifa. Ita wannan hanyar ana iya amfani da ita koda bayan sati ɗaya da yin jima'i.

Kammalawa

A cikin wannan rubutu munga hanyoyi daban-daban na bada tazarar iyali da ake amfani dasu a wannan zamani. Amma dai a cikin rubutun munyi shiru game da  hanyar da tafi kowace dacewa ayi amfani da ita, saboda mutane sun bambanta kowa da irin hanyar da tafi dacewa dashi. Duk da haka masana sunfi karkata zuwa ga robobin zamani da ake sanyawa a hannu a ƙarƙashin fatar damtse domin bada tazarar iyali ko hana haihuwa na wani lokaci.

Idan kuna da tambaya sai kuyi a cikin akwatin sharhi dake ƙasa, Insha Allah zamu karba ba tare da jinkiri ba. Haka kuma zaku iya shiga group dinmu na WhatsApp domin kasancewa damu damu a koda yaushe da kuma samun ingantattun bayanan mu a cikin sauki. Ku danna wannan domin shiga: Lafiyata Group 3. 
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