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Bayani Game Da Zazzabin Lassa, Alamomin Sa Da Yadda Ake Kamuwa Da Shi

Zazzabin Lassa wata cuta ce da ke sanya matsanancin zazzabi da kuma zubar jini a ko'ina daga jikin mutum. Ko da yake an gano cutar zazzaɓin lassa a cikin alif dari tara da hamsin (1950), amma ba'a gano takamaiman kwayar cutar da ke haddasa cutar zazzaɓin lassa ba sai a alif dari tara da sittin da tara (1969) a wani kauye da ake kira Lassa a cikin jihar Borno, Nigeria.

Wannan shi ne yasa aka sakawa wannan cutar suna 'Lassa fever' ma'ana zazzabin Lassa. Shi kuma kwayar cutar da ke kawo zazzaɓin lassa aka saka mata Lassa Virus. Lassa virus, wani kwayar cutar virus ne mai dunƙule daya (RNA virus) kuma yana daga cikin dangin Arenaviridae. 

Zazzabin Lassa cuta ce da ta samo asali daga dabbobi (zoonotic disease). Zazzabin lassa rashin lafiya ne mai saurin yaduwa, wanda wani beran daji mai nonuwa dayawa (multi-mammate rat) ke yadawa. 

Cutar tana yaduwa a kasashen yammacin Afirka da suka hada da Saliyo da Laberiya da Guinea da kuma Najeriya. Kasashe masu makwabtaka ma suna cikin hatsari saboda saurin yaɗuwar cutar zuwa wasu wurare.

Kimanin mutane 100,000 zuwa 300,000 ne ke kamuwa da cutar zazzabin Lassa a duk shekara, inda kusan 5,000 ke mutuwa akan zazzabin. Bincike a kan zazzabin Lassa ya bambanta tsakanin wurare don haka waɗannan ƙididdiga sun kasance ƙiyasta wa ne daga binciken baya.

A wasu yankuna na Saliyo da Laberiya, kusan kashi 10-16% na mutanen da ake kwantar da su a asibitoci duk shekara suna fama da zazzabin Lassa.  Wannan ya nuna mummunan tasirin cutar a yankin.

Bincike ya nuna cewa, zazzabin Lassa ya shiga a cikin kasar Benin (inda aka gano shi a karon farko a watan Nuwamba 2014), Ghana (an gano shi a karon farko a watan Oktoba 2011), Guinea, Laberiya, Mali (wanda aka gano a karon farko a cikin Fabrairu 2009). Haka kuma kasar Saliyo, da Najeriya wadanda sune magabata. Haka kuma tabbas akwai cutar a wasu kasashen yammacin Afirka ma.

A watan Fabrairu nan da ya wuce an sake samun barkewar cutar zazzabin Lassa a jihar Kaduna da kuma wasu sassan jihohi da ke kewaye da ita a cikin Nigeria.

Kusan kashi 80% na mutanen da suka kamu da cutar Lassa ba su nuna wani alamun cutar. Kashi 1 cikin 5 na mutanen da suka kamu da zazzabin Lassa na samun rashin lafiya mai matukar tsanani, inda kwayar cutar za ta shafi manyan gabobin jikinsa kamar hanta, saifa da koda.

Yadda Zazzabin Lassa ke Yaɗuwa daga Beraye Zuwa Mutane 

Tafki, ko kuma mai masaukin baki, na kwayoyin cutar Lassa virus, wani beran daji ne da aka kira da “multimmamate rat” a turance, a kimiya kuma sunan wannan beran shi ne - Mastomys natalensis. Yadda ake gane wannan beran daji shi ne yana da nonuwa dayawa a kirji. Wannan bera shi ne ke ainihin yada wannan cutar zazzabin Lassa zuwa ga mutane.

Zazzabin Lassa

Da zarar beran ya kamu da kwayar cutar Lassa virus daga yan'uwansa beraye, zai fara fitar da kwayar cutar a cikin fitsari da kashin sa na wani lokaci mai tsawo, watakila har iya tsawon rayuwarsa. 

Berayen mastomy  suna da saurin hayayyafa akai-akai, kuma suna da yawa a cikin yankin sahara da dazuzzukan yamma, tsakiya, da gabashin Afirka. 

Bugu da ƙari, berayen mastomys suna shiga gidajen mutane da wuraren da ake adana abinci a hankali. Dukkan wadannan abubuwan suna taimakawa wajen yaduwar cutar ta zazzabin Lassa mai yaduwa daga berayen da suka kamu da ƙwayoyin cutar zuwa mutane.

Wani abin al'ajabi shi ne, berayen da suka kamu da ƙwayoyin cutar zazzabin Lassa basa rashin lafiyar komai sakamakon kamuwa da wadannan ƙwayoyin cutar, lafiya kalau suke ko ciwon kai Lassa virus baya saka su. A haka zasu ci gaba da rayuwar su cikin koshin lafiya kuma suna yada wannan cutar zuwa ga mutane da sauran yan uwansu beraye.

Yaɗuwar kwayoyin cutar Lassa daga beraye zuwa mutane na faruwa mafi yawa ta hanyar shan abin sha ko cin abinci wanda beran mastomys yayi wasa a ciki, ko kuma taba fitsari, jini ko najasar wannan bera da hannu ka tsaye.

Haka kuma cin wadannan beran duk yafi sauran abubuwan da muka ambata a baya haɗari, saboda beran da ya kamu da zazzabin Lassa, ƙwayoyin cutar sukan zauna a cikin jinin sa har abada. Cin berayen daji barkatai ba karamin isgili da rayuwa ne ba a halin yanzu.

Bugu da kari, cutar zazzabin Lassa tana iya yaduwa daga berayen mastomys zuwa mutane ta hanyar shaƙar iskar da ya gurbata da fitsari ko najasar wannan bera. Wannan na iya faruwa a lokacin da mutum yake shara ko tsaftace muhallin da beran ya gurbata. Don haka, dole a sanya takunkumi da kuma daukar wasu matakan kariya a duk lokacin da za'a tsaftace muhallin da bera ya gurbata.

Yadda Zazzabin Lassa ke Yaɗuwa a Tsakanin Mutane 

Ba wai kawai haduwa da berayen da suka kamu da cutar ba ita ce kadai hanyar da mutane ke kamuwa da zazzabin Lassa. Yaɗuwar kwayoyin cutar zazzabin Lassa a tsakanin mutum-da-mutum na iya faruwa idan mutum ya hadu da dan uwansa da ya kamu da cutar zazzabin Lassa.

Hanyoyin da mutum zai iya daukar da kwayoyin cutar zazzabin Lassa daga danuwansa wanda ya kamu sun hada da:

  1. Haduwa da jinin wanda ya kamu da cutar, wannan na iya zama ta hanyar karin jini, ko kuma ta hanyar barin jinin wanda ya kamu da cutar ya taba mutum
  2. Haduwa da yawun wanda ya kamu da cutar zazzabin Lassa, yana iya yiyuwa ta hanyar sumbata ko duk wata hanya da mutum zai iya samun yawun a jikinsa kai tsaye 
  3. Haduwa da fitsari ko duk wata najasar wanda ya kamu da cutar zazzabin Lassa.
  4.  Saduwa da mai dauke da cutar zazzabin Lassa
  5. Mace mai ciki tana yadawa yaronta a lokacin da yake cikin ciki
  6. Mace mai shayarwa tana shayar da danta da kwayoyin cutar Lassa.
  7. Haduwa da zufan wanda ke dauke da cutar zazzabin Lassa. A lura cewa, haduwar fata da fata kawai in ba zufa a jiki, kamar yin musabaha baya yaɗar da cutar, sai dai in akwai miki ko wani jin ciwo a fatar. Amma dai akwai hadari.
  8. Ma'aikatan lafiya suna iya samu ta hanyar needle prick injury
  9. Tarayyar abubuwa masu kaifi, kamar reza, allura da mai ɗauke da zazzabin Lassa 
  10. Tarayyar buroshi da mai dauke da cutar zazzabin lasa


Alamomin Zazzabin Lassa 

Alamun zazzabin Lassa yawanci suna bayyana ne makonni 1-3 bayan mutum ya kamu da cutar. Ga mafi yawan masu kamuwa da cutar zazzabin Lassa (kimanin kashi 80%), alamun suna da sauki, kuma ba safai akan gane su ba. 

Alamomi masu sauki sun haɗa da 

  • Dan zazzabi
  • Rashin ƙarfin jiki
  • Kasala
  • Ciwon kai 
  • Alamomin mura
  • Rashin jin dadin rayuwa 

A cikin kashi 20 cikin 100 na mutanen da suka kamu da cutar zazzabin Lassa, alamomi masu sauki suna iya ci gaba zuwa masu tsanani, kamar irin su fara zubar jini (zubar jini daga dasashi, idanu, hanci, farji, azzakari, dubura da duk ma wata kofa ta jikin mutum tana iya fara zubar jini). 

Haka kuma bayan zubar jini daga jiki sauran alamomi masu tsanani sun hada da: 

  • Zazzaɓi mai tsananin zafi da baya lafawa
  • Ciwon makogwaro
  • Haki da wahalar numfashi
  • Aman jini
  • Fitsarin jini 
  • Zubar jini daga kunne
  • Kumburin fuska
  • Rashin yin fitsari
  • Zafi a kirji, baya da ciki
  • Gigicewa
  • Ɗimaucewa
  • Fisge-fisge
  • Asarar jii ko kurmancewa 

Mutum na iya mutuwa cikin sati biyu da fara bayyanar alamomin zazzabin Lassa.

Kimanin kashi 15% -20% na marasa lafiya da ke kwance a asibiti sakamakon zazzabin Lassa na mutuwa daga rashin lafiyar. Duk da haka, bincike ya nuna cewa, kashi 1 cikin 100 na mutanen da suka kamu da zazzabin Lassa ne ke mutuwa daga cutar. 

Mata masu tsohon ciki sun fi kowa saurin mutuwa daga zazzabin Lassa idan suka kamu da cutar.

Kammalawa 

Ba kowane zazzabi ne ke samo asali daga cutar zazzabin ciwon sauro ba. Wani zazzabin na Lassa ne, saboda haka ku garzaya zuwa asibiti domin ganin ƙwararren likita da zarar kunji zazzabin musamman wannan lokaci da ake fama da barkewar zazzabin Lassa.

Zazzabin Lassa cuta ce wadda ta samo asali daga beran daji da ake kira multi-mammate rat. Zazzabin Lassa na da saurin yaduwa a tsakanin al'umma. Zazzabin yana sanya zubar jini ta ko'ina a jikin mutum. Mutum yana fara nuna alamun zazzabin Lassa cikin kwanaki ashirin da daya da kamuwa da cutar.

Zazzabin Lassa yana addabar kasashen Benin, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Saliyo, da Najeriya, da kuma sauran kasashen yammacin Afirka ma.

Nassoshi

1. Training: The Epidemiology and Clinical Presentation of Lassa Fever: Information for Medical Providers

2. Diagnosing and Treating Lassa Fever: Information for Medical Providers


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