Gabatarwa:

A rubutu na farko da muka yi akan hawan jini munyi bayani mai zurfi game da hawan jini, abubuwan da ke kawo shi da kuma yanda ake maganin shi. Yana da kyau in wannan ne farkon zuwan ka wannan shafin toh ka fara karanta rubutu na farko "Bayani akan hawan jini, alamomin shi da kuma yadda ake maganin shi" domin samun ingantattar fahimta akan abin da zamu tattauna a cikin wannan rubutu. A wannan rubutu zamu kawo muku illolin ciwon hawan jini da kuma yanda ake maganin wasu daga cikin su.



Hargitsin hawan jini (Hypertensive crises)

Hargitsin hawan jini shi ne mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini da yake buƙatar kulawa ta gaggawa. Likitoci masana zuciya da jijiyoyin jini sun raba hargitsin hawan jini zuwa kashi 2 kamar haka:

1. Hypertensive urgency

Wannan shi ne mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini da yafi kimanin 180/120mmHg ba tare da alamar yima wani sashen jiki illa ba wanda yake buƙatar kulawa ta gaggawa a cikin awa ashirin da huɗu (24).

2. Hypertensive emergency

Wannan shine mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini tare da wata alama ta yima wani sashen jiki illa (kamar ƙwaƙwalwa, zuciya ko ƙoda) da yake buƙatar kulawa ta gaggawa a cikin awa ɗaya (1).
Wasu rukunoni daga cikin rukunin hypertensive emergency idan akayi la'akari da sashen jikin da hawan jinin yayi ma illa sun ƙunshi waɗannan;

A. Malignant hypertension
Wannan shi ne mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini tare da yima ƙoda da ƙwaƙwalwa illa da kuma taruwar ruwa a cikin huhu. Ana gane malignant hypertension da abubuwa kamar haka:
  1. Markedly elevated blood pressure: Mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini
  2. Renal dysfunction: Gazawar ƙoda
  3. Hypertensive encephalopathy: Bayanin shi zai zo nan gaba kaɗan
  4. Pulmonary oedema: Taruwar ruwa a cikin huhu
  5. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome: Fashewar jajayen tantanin halittun jini da kuma hauhawar sinadaran da ba'a buƙata a jini.
  6. Micro-angiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA): Ƙarancin jinin dake samo asali ta hanyar fashewar jajayen tantanin halittun jini (red blood cells) yayin da suke kutsawa a cikin ƙananan jijiyoyi.
B. Hypertensive encephalopathy
Wannan shi ne mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini tare da yiwa ƙwaƙwalwa illa. Ana gane shi ne ta waɗannan alamomi:
  1. Markedly elevated blood pressure: Mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini
  2. Severe headache: Matsanancin ciwon kai
  3. Vomitting: Amai
  4. Transient ischemic attack: Kasawar wani sashen jikin mutum da bai wuce awa ashirin da huɗu ba.
  5. Confusion: Ruɗewa
C. Eclampsia
Wannan shi ne mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini da ke faruwa da mata masu juna biyu. Ana gane shi ne ta waɗannan hanyoyi:
  1. Mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini ga macce mai juna biyu
  2. Jijjigar dukkan jiki (convulsions)
  3. Sinadarin protein a cikin fitsari (proteinuria)
D. Dissecting aortic aneurysm
Mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini yakan sa babbar jijiyar jini da ke ɗauko jini daga zuciya zuwa cikin ciki (aorta) tayi ƙunji. Yin ƙunjin wannan jijiyar shi ake kira da aortic aneurysm. A lokacin da mummunar hauhawar matsin lambar jini ya yawaita har yasa wannan ƙunjin ya tsage daga ciki she ake kira dissecting aortic aneurysm. A lura cewa, babbar jijiyar dake ɗauko jini daga zuciya zuwa zuwa cikin ciki takan iya tsagewa daga ciki ba tare da yin ƙunji ba, wannan shi ake kira aortic dissection, haka kuma idan tayi ƙunji, ƙunjin yakan iya fashewa ya tarwatse, wannan shi ake kira 'ruptured aortic aneurysm' a turanci.  Ana gane wannan matsalar da waɗannan alamomi:
  1. Markedly elevated blood pressure: Tsanin hauhawar matsin lambar jini.
  2. Severe chestpain: Matsanancin ciwon ƙirji


Su waye kan iya samun hargitsin hawan jini?
1. Masu hawan jini da basu shan magani yadda ya kamata
2. Masu hawan jini da basu zuwa asibiti ganin likita akai-akai
3. Mai yawaita damuwa da baƙin ciki
4. Yawan ƙiba (taiɓa)
5. Mai hawan jinin ya samu haɗari
6. Mai hawan jini da ciwon ƙoda
7. Mai hawan jini da ciwon suga
8. Mai hawan jinin da ya faɗa cikin wani tashin hankali.
9. Mai hawan jini dake yawan cin gishiri.
10. Tsofaffi masu hawan jini.
11. Mata sun fi samun hargitsin hawan jini sama da maza.
12.

Yadda ake kula da wanda ke cikin hargitsin hawan jini

A lura cewa, wanda ke cikin hargitsin hawan jini yana buƙatar kulawa ta musamman cikin gaggawa ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba. Saboda haka yana bukatar a kwantar dashi a ɗakin bada kulawa ta musamman na asibiti (I.C.U). Ana so a rage adadin matsin lambar jinin sa da kashi 25 cikin ɗari a lokacin da bai fi awa ɗaya ba. Bayan an kwantar da shi za'a yi masa allurar rage matsin lambar jini. Allurorin da za'a iya amfani dasu sun haɗa da:
  1. Labetalol
  2. Carvedilol
  3. Hydralazine
  4. Sodium nitroprusside
  5. Dioxoxide
Maƙasudi shi ne rage adadin matsin lambar jini da aƙalla kashi 25 cikin ɗari a cikin awa ɗaya ta farko. Bayan awa 6 idan matsin lambar jini ya sauka zuwa adadin da ake buƙata sai a daina yin allurar rage matsin lambar jini a koma bada ƙwayoyin magani.

Gazawar zuciya

Zuciyar mai ciwon hawan jini tana aiki sosai fiye da yadda ya kamata, wannan shi yasa idan hawan jini ya daɗe a jikin mutum yakan haifar da kasawar zuciya, saboda aikin da take yi yafi ƙarfin ta. Da farko wannan yawan aiki yakan sa zuciya ta kumbura sosai domin ƙara girma da samun isasshen ƙarfin da zata jure wannan aiki amma daga baya sai zuciya ta zo ta kasa baki ɗaya. Ana gane kasawar zuciya da alamomi kamar haka:
  1. Kumburin ƙafafu
  2. Yawan tari mai kumfa
  3. Matsalar numfashi
  4. Fitowar jijiyoyin wuya a fili sosai
  5. Kumburin ciki
  6. Da dai sauransu

Mutuwar rabin jiki

Hawan jini yakan haifar da mutuwar rabin jiki a lokacin da yayi wa  ƙananan jijiyoyin da ke cikin ƙwaƙwalwa illah. Ana gane mutuwar rabin jiki da alamomi kamar haka:
  1. Rashin iya amfani da ɓangaren jiki
  2. Rashin iya magana
  3. Rashin gani a ido ɗaya
  4. Karkacewar baki zuwa wani gefe
  5. Shanyewar hannu ko ƙafa.


Ciwon ƙoda

Hawan jini idan yayi yawa yakan taɓa ƙodar marar lafiya. Haka zalika, idan mutum na da ciwon ƙoda ya kan iya samun hawan jini ko da baida shi.

Rashin gani (Makanta)

Hawan jini yakan taɓa idanun marar lafiya, yakan sa mutum ya rage gani sosai ko ya kama gani garaye-garaye. Wannan yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan alamomin dake nuna hawan jini ya daɗe a jikin marar lafiya. Bature yana kiran sa hypertensive retinopathy.

Yawan mantuwa

A yayin da hawan jini yayi ma ƙananan jijiyoyin da ke kaiwa ƙwaƙwalwa jini illa yakan haifar da cutar yawan mantuwa (Dimentia).

Rashin mazakuta

Hawan jini yana kawo rashin mazakuta a lokacin da yayi wa jijiyoyin da ke kawo jini zuwa azzakari illah.

Yadda mutum zai kare kansa daga ciwon hawan jini 


Anaso mutum ya fake salon rayuwa mai kyau domin kaucewa kamuwa daga cutar hawan jini ko kuma kaucewa illolin hawan jini ga wanda cutar ta kama. Waɗannan abubuwan da ake son mutum yayi sun haɗa da:

1. Cin abinci mai kyau
2. Rage cin gishiri
3. Rage shan giya
4. Rage shan sigari
5. Rage ƙiba (taiɓa)
6. Yawan motsa jiki
7. Samun isasshen bacci
8. Kula da shan maganin hawan jini sosai (ga wanda ke da cutar).
9. Yawan duba matsin lambar jini akai-akai
10. Fake zuwa asibiti domin ganin likita (ga wanda cutar ta kama)
11. Fake shan magungunan ciwon ƙoda (ga wanda ke da ciwon ƙoda) domin ciwon ƙoda yana kawo hawan jini.
12. Fake shan magungunan ciwon suga (ga mai ciwon suga) domin ciwon suga yana kawo hawan jini.

Bayanin rufewa

A wannan rubutu munga illolin hawan jini daban-daban da kuma yanda ake maganin wasu daga cikinsu. Haka zalika munga hanyoyin salon rayuwa daban-daban da mutum zai kare kansa da waɗannan illolin.
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