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Ranar Sikila Ta Duniya: Bayani Game Da Cutar Sikila

Cutar sikila ko kuma amosanin jini daya ne daga cikin cututtukan da za a iya cewa sun zama ruwan dare, saboda yadda ake yawan samun yin aure tsakanin masu rukunin jinin AS da AS ko SS da AS. Wannan yana faruwa ne saboda rashin yin gwaje-gwaje tsakanin ma'aurata kamin aure, watau 'Premarital Screening Tests.'

Cutar Sikila

Cutar amosanin jini ta wato sickle cell anaemia, mugun ciwo ne, larura ce da ke raunata mai fama da ita har ma da iyalan mai fama da ita da al'umma baki daya ta fanni daban-daban.

An ware ranar 19 ga watan Yunin kowace shekara watau rana mai kama da ta jiya a matsayin ranar yaki da cutar amosanin jini wato ranar sikila ta duniya. Wannan wata rana ce da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ware domin fadakar da al'umma kan wannan cutar ta amosanin jini a matakin kasa da kuma na kasa da kasa baki daya.

Alamomin cutar Sikila

Cutar sikila cuta ce wadda ake haihuwar jariri da ita, mafi akasari tana fara nuna alamomi tun jariri yana dan watanni biyar zuwa shida. Kadan daga cikin alamomin da cutar sikila ke nunawa sun haɗa da:

  1. Yin kumburin ƙafafu da hannuwa a lokacin da yaro yakai watanni huɗu zuwa shida
  2. Yawan yin ɗorawar idanu (abin da wasu ke kira shawara)
  3. Yawan ciwon ƙasusuwa da gaɓɓai ba gaira ba dalili. Kamar ciwon ƙasusuwan hannuwa, ƙafafu, ciwon ƙirji, ciwon kwankwaso da kuma ciwon baya.
  4. Rashin girma: Sikila kan sa yaro ya tsamure ya ƙi girma duk da yana samun wadataccen abinci.
  5. Yin fitsari mai kama da ruwan koka-kola
  6. Alamomin ƙarancin jini, kamar rashin kuzarin jiki, wahalar nunfashi da yawan faduwar gaba.
  7. Farin idanu, tafin hannuwa da ƙafafu
Cutar Sikila

Me ke kawo ciwon sikila?

Ciwon sikila cuta ce wadda ake haihuwar ɗan Adam da ita, ba cuta ce wadda ake samu ta hanyar tarayya da mai ita ba. Ciwon sikila na faruwa ne a lokacin da mutum ya gado sinadarin protein mai tangarɗa da ake kira Haemoglobin SS (HbSS) daga wajen iyayen sa guda biyu.

Shi wannan sinadarin protein na haemoglobin ana samun sa ne a cikin ƙwayoyin halittun jini jajaye. Aikin sinadarin haemoglobin shi ne jigilar iska da sauran kayan abinci a tsakanin jini da sauran sassan jiki. Haka kuma yana taimakawa ƙwayoyin jini jajaye domin riƙe mutuncin siffar su mai kamar kobo. Akwai sinadarin haemoglobin guda biyar kamar haka:

  1. Sinadarin haemoglobin AA (HbAA) - Genotype AA
  2. Sinadarin haemoglobin AS (HbAS) - Genotype AS
  3. Sinadarin haemoglobin AC (HbAC) - Genotype AC
  4. Sinadarin haemoglobin SS (HbSS) - Genotype SS 
  5. Sinadarin haemoglobin SC (HbSC) - Genotype SC

Sinadarin haemoglobin AA shi ne lafiyayyen sinadari, mutanen da ke da wannan sinadari su ne masu Genotype AA, ma'ana ba su ɗauke da cutar sikila kuma ba'a iya gadon cutar sikila daga wurin su.

Su kuma masu sinadarin haemoglobin AS da AC, watau genotype AS da AC, basu da cutar sikila amma ana iya gadon cutar sikila dagaresu.

Sinadarin haemoglobin SS da SC su ne sinadaran haemoglobin na masu cutar sikila, suna samuwa ne a lokacin da yaro ya gado HbS ko HbC ɗaya daga wurin mamarsa ɗaya daga wurin babansa. Wannan shi zai nuna mana cewa kamin yaro ya zama sikila dole ne duka mahaifansa kowa na ɗauke da sinadarin haemoglobin mai tangarɗa aƙalla ɗaya, HbS ko HbC, ma'ana genotype (AS, AC, SC ko SS).

Ba'a taɓa haihuwar yaro da cutar sikila idan ɗaya daga cikin mahaifan sa na da haemoglobin AA (genotype AA). Haka kuma akwai wani kalar haemoglobin da yayi ƙaranci sosai, haemoglobin CC (HbCC), shi ma wannan mafi yawan masana sun tafi akan cewa haemoglobin ne na cutar sikila, amma yana da sauƙi sosai, masu wannan sikla basu wahala sosai kuma ba'a faye samun sa ba.

A lura cewa, ma'aurata biyu masu haemoglobin AS (genotype AS) ko haemoglobin AC da AS (genotype AC da AS), duk da cewa su basu da cutar sikila, duk da cewa lafiyar su ƙalau, toh amma za su iya haihuwar yaro mai sikila. A duk lokacin da suka samu juna biyu akwai tsammani geji 25 cikin 100 (25% chance) abin da zasu haifa zai zama mai cutar sikila, ma'ana zai zo da haemoglobin SS ko haemoglobin SC.

Mene ne matsalolin masu cutar sikila?

Matsalar masu cutar sikila shi ne suna ɗauke da sinadarin haemoglobin SS ko SC, wadannan sinadaran haemoglobin suna da tangarɗa a wajen halittar su, wannan shi yasa suke da matsaloli dayawa kamar haka:

  1. Sinadaran haemoglobin SS da SC ba su iya jigilar jini da iska kamar yan'uwansu AA da AS.
  2. Sinadaran haemoglobin SS da SC suna sanya ƙwayoyin jini jajaye su lankwasa su koma kamar siffar lauje, maimakon asalin siffar su mai kamar kobo.
  3. Sinadaran haemoglobin SS da SC ba su narkewa cikin jini yadda ya kamata. Amma SC yafi SS narkewa.
  4. Sinadarin haemoglobin SS da SC suna sanya ƙwayoyin jini jajaye toshe jijiyoyin jini a yayin da suka lanƙwashe suka ɗauki siffar lauje.
  5. Sinadarin haemoglobin SS da SC suna sanya ƙwayoyin jini jajaye saurin fashewa yayin da suke kutsawa a cikin ƙananan jijiyoyin jini.


Wadannan abubuwa guda biyar da muka lissafa su ne ummul haba'isi na cutar sikila. Duk wani illah da kaga cutar sikila tayi wa wani, toh sakamakon wadannan abubuwan ne.

Abubuwan da ya kamata ku sani game da cutar sikila 

1. Najeriya ce ta fi yawan masu cutar sikla a duniya

Bincike ya nuna cewa duk shekara ana haifar jarirai masu ɗauke da cutar sikila kimanin 300,000 a duniya kuma rabi daga wannan yawan a Najeriya ake haifar su. Daga cikin 150,000 na jariran a Najeriya, kimanin 100,000 ne ke mutuwa duk shekara.

Alkaluma sun nuna cewa mafi yawan masu cutar suna zama ne arewacin kasar ta Najeriya. Masana kiwon lafiya sun yi amanna da cewa rashin yin gwajin jini kafin aure shi ne abin da yafi komi taka rawa wajen haifar yara masu dauke da cutar sikila a kasar.

2. Shan magunguna har abada

Masu fama da cutar amosanin jini ta sikila suna fara shan wasu magunguna tun daga lokacin da aka gano suna dauke da cutar har zuwa karshen rayuwarsu.

Daga cikin magungunan akwai 'Folic Acid' wanda yake karawa masu cutar sikila yawan jini, saboda kwayoyin jininsu na yawan fashewa. Akwa kuma 'Proguanil' magani ne da ke kare su daga kamuwa da cutar maleriya don tana wahalar da su sosai idan suka kamu, kuma Maleriya na sanya cutar sikila tashi.

Sai kuma maganin 'Peniciillin V' shi kuma aikin sa shi ne kare su daga cututtuka masu alaka da cututtukan numfashi. Sai kuma maganin 'Hydroxyurea' wanda yake taimaka wa kwayoyin jinin masu cutar sikila su zauna a siffar su ta asali ba tare da sun lanƙwashe ba, ta wannan hanyar hydroxyurea yakan taimaka musu wajen rage tashin ciwon sikila. Amma yawanci shi sai wanda ciwon ke masa tsanani.

3. Ana son mai sikila ya yawaita shan ruwa

Shan ruwa dayawa abu ne mai matukar muhimmanci ga masu cutar sikila, saboda rashin ruwa yana tayar musu da ciwon kwankwaso da ciwon gaɓɓai.

Haka kuma, shan ruwan na sanya jini ya dinga gudu yadda ya kamata kuma kwayoyin jini su dinga wucewa cikin jiyoyi ƙanana ba tare da takura ba, hakan yana hana ciwon yawan tashi.

4. Zafin ciwon sikila ya fi na nakuda

Tsananin zafin ciwon ƙasusuwa, gaɓɓai da kuma kwankwaso da masu cutar sikila ke fama da shi lokaci zuwa lokaci yana matukar takura musu. Masana a harkar lafiya sun ce zafin wannan ciwon ya fi na nakuda.

Suna jin ciwon ƙashi kamar ana kwankwatsa shi, saboda jini ba ya isa wasu wurare sakamakon toshewar magudanan jini.

5. Shafar lafiyar jima'i

Wannan ciwon na sikila bai bar masu shi ta bangaren shafar lafiyar jima'insu ba. Ciwo ne da ke hana su taka rawar gani sosai a wasu lokutan ta wannan fanni.

Ga maza dai yawanci gabansu ya kan mike ya ki sauka, kwayoyin jini masu kamar lauje na makalewa sannan su toshe jijiyoyin jinin da ke  gaban su sai jinin ya ki fita ya taru a wajen, sai al'aurarsu ta mike ta ki sauka.

A wasu lokutan har sai an yi wata 'yar karamar tiyata kamin abin ya lafa, wasu kuma da an sanya kankara sai ta taimaka wajen kwantar da gaban.

6. Yawan kuka da ihu ba babba ba yaro

Tsananin zafin ciwon da cutar sikila ke zuwa da shi kan sa masu cutar dinga gurzar kuka tare da gunji da gurnani. A irin wannan yanayi ba babba ba yaro, wasu ma za'a ga sun fita hayyancin su. Komai girman mutum da ke cikin irin wannan yanayi kar ku ga laifin sa don ta ɓarke da kuka da ihu, saboda baku san abinda yake ji ba.

Wata mai fama da wannan lalura ta ce: ''Ba zan iya kwatanta yadda ciwon yake ba, illa iyaka zan ce na kan ji kamar ana kwankwatsa min kashi na da guduma. Shi ya sa duk dauriyar mutum sai an ji sautin kukan sa.

7. Karaya ba tare da jin ciwo ba

Daga cikin wasu abubuwan ban mamaki dangane da wannan ciwo shi ne yadda a wasu lokutan sai ƙashin wata gaɓa ta jikin masu ciwon ya karye ɓal, ba tare da jin rauni ba.

Ba komai ke jawo hakan ba sai tsabar toshewar magudanan jini da ke kaiwa wannan ƙashi jini.

Abubuwan da ke tada cutar sikila

  1. Gajiya
  2. Ƙarancin ruwan jiki
  3. Rashin lafiya, ko kamuwa da cutuka, kamar maleriya da cutar magudanan fitsari.
  4. Canzawar yanayi, kamar matsanancin sanyi ko zafi.
  5. Damuwa
  6. Matsanancin farin ciki
  7. Zuwan jinin al'ada
  8. Shiga yanayin tsoro

Yadda ake kula da masu cutar sikila 

Ana son a ba masu cutar sikila kulawa ta musamman dangane da abinci, abin sha, muhalli, sutura da komi na walwalarsu. 

Ana so su rika cin abinci mai gina jiki wanda ya kunshi dukkan abinda jikin dan adam je bukata ‘balanced diet’. 

Wajen abin sha ana so su rika shan ruwa sosai, saboda ruwan kan taimaka wajen kara karfin jiki da kuzari, rashin shan isashshen ruwan kan kawo ƙarancin ruwan jiki, wanda hakan zai iya ta da ciwon. 

Muhallin su dole ya zama mai tsafta saboda gudun cudanya da kamuwa da kwayoyin cuta. Su zama a muhalli yalwatacce da zai rika saka su nishaɗi. 

A lokacin sanyi dole suturar da za'a saka musu  ta zama mai dan kauri wadda zata taimaka wajen dumama jikinsu. Misali a cikin hunturu da damina ana so su rika amfani da rigunan sanyi (sweaters, jacket, cardigans), safar hannu da ta kafa, hular sanyi domin kariya daga sanyi da kuma kamuwa da cututtukan da ke tattare da iska.

Yadda ake warkar da masu cutar sikila 

A kasashen da suka ci-gaba, ana yin dashen ɓargo, watau bone marrow transplant domin warkar da masu cutar sikila baki daya.

Ɓargo ko kuma bone marrow a turance, a tsakiyar kasusuwa ake samun shi, yana da dan maiƙo, shi wannan ɓargon za ka gan shi kamar yellow, shi ne ke samar da dukkan ƙwayoyin halittun da ke cikin jini.

Wannan hanya ta dashen ɓargo har ila wa yau da mukayi wannan rubutu ita kadai ce ingantacciyar hanyar da ake iya warkar da masu cutar sikila a duniya. Amma duk da haka akwai wasu 'yan damfara masu iƙirarin suna da maganin cutar sikila na gargajiya, kar ku yarda dasu, zasu damfare ku kawai su ƙwace muku kudi. Kai ko a kyauta ma suka baku maganin kar ku yarda kuyi amfani da maganin, saboda baku san mene ne asalin sa ba.

Ana yin dashen ɓargo ne a sakamakon wasu cututtukan daji ko kansar da je shafuwar halittun jini kamar irin su leukaemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia, aplastic anaemia, congenital neutropenia da da sauran su.

A masu cutar sikila ana yin dashen ɓargo ne saboda ɓargon masu sikila ya daina samar da jajayen ƙwayoyin halittun jini masu ɗauke da haemoglobin SS, sai ya koma samar da masu ɗauke da haemoglobin AA.

Yadda ake kariya daga cutar sikila

Babban hanyar kariya daga cutar sikila shi ne yin gwaje gwaje kamin aure a tsakanin ma'aurata sannan kuma da tamtance genotype na kowa kamin yayi aure.
Ya zama wajibi ga mace da mijin da zata aura su san mene ne matsayinsu a gwajin cutar sikila. Wannan gwajin shi zai sanar dasu wane irin hemoglobin suke da shi a cikin jini? Sanin wannan shi ne zai bada damar su kare kansu daga haihuwar yara masu cutar sikila. Ga yadda sakamakon yakan iya kasancewa.
  • AA + AC = Ba'a samun yara masu sikila
  • AA + SS = Ba'a samun yara masu sikila
  • AA + AA = Ba'a samun yara masu sikila
  • AA + AS = Ba'a samun yara masu sikila
  • AC + SS = Za'a iya samun yara masu sikila
  • AS + AS = Za'a iya samun yara masu sikila
  • AS + SC = Za'a iya samun yara masu sikila
  • AS + SS = Za'a iya samun yara masu sikila
  • AS + ACb = Za'a iya samun yara masu sikila
  • AS + Sβ-Thal = Za'a iya samun yara masu sikila
  • SC + SSb = Yara masu sikila kawai za'a haifa
  • SS + SS = Yara masu sikila kawai za'a haifa

Kammalawa 

Babban jigon fadakarwa akan cutar sikila shi ne a fadakar da mutane game da amfanin zuwa yin awon cutar sikila kamin ƙulla niyyar aure. Haka kuma idan ma an kulla yarjejeniyar aure amma daga baya akayi gwajin sikila aka ga akwai matsala, toh dole ne a watse auren, saboda ta wannan hanyar ne kawai zamu kori cutar sikila ta bar al'ummar mu da ƙasar mu baki daya.

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